Anchor: #i1009006
A+B Bidding
A+B bidding, also known as cost-plus-time bidding, involves time (with an associated cost) in the low bid determination. Bids consist of two components:
1.)The “A” component is the traditional bid for the contract items and is the dollar amount for all work to be performed under the contract.
2.)The “B” component is a “bid” of the total number of calendar days required to complete the project, as estimated by the bidder. The bid for award consideration is based on a combination of the bid for the contract items and the associated cost of the time, according to the following formula: (A) + (B x Road User Cost per Day)
The formula is only used to determine the lowest bid for award and is not used to determine payment to the contractor. A disincentive provision, that assesses road user costs, is incorporated into the contract to discourage the contractor from overrunning the time “bid” for the project. In addition, an incentive provision should be included to reward the contractor if the work is completed earlier than the time “bid.” A+B bidding should be considered for critical projects having high road user delay costs.
Anchor: #i1009046
Abandonment is the relinquishment of the public interest in right-of-way or activity thereon with no intention to reclaim or use again for highway purposes.
Anchor: #i1009056
Abilene District
The Abilene District is a TxDOT district office including the following counties: Bordon, Callahan, Fisher, Haskell, Howard, Jones, Kent, Mitchell, Nolan, Scurry, Shackelford, Stonewall, and Taylor. Area offices are located in Abilene, Big Spring, Hamlin and Snyder. The Abilene District also has a Vehicle Title and Registration Regional Office in Abilene.
Inside TxDOT
Anchor: #i1009075
abnormal end
An Abnormal End is when a computer job cannot be allowed to continue running. Either the operating system or an operator may give an ABEND condition to a job on the computer. Messages and codes are used to inform the user about what the condition is and in some cases a remedy is indicated.
Anchor: #i1009090
Absorption is the amount of either water or asphalt cement absorbed by aggregate. It is expressed as a percent of the oven-dry weight of the same aggregate sample.absorption moisture content
Absorption moisture content is the moisture content at saturated surface dry condition.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1009109
Abuse is defined as the intentional deviations from approved procedures.
Quality Assurance Program Manual
Anchor: #i1009123
An abutment is the part of a bridge consisting of the cap, backwall, and wingwalls at the ends of a bridge which supports the superstructure, contains the earth in the approach fills, and directly receives the impact loads produced by traffic passing from the roadway onto the bridge.An abutment is a wall supporting the end of a bridge or span, and sustaining the pressure of the abutting earth.
Bridge Detailing Manual
Anchor: #i1009133
acceleration lane
Acceleration lane is a speed-change lane, including tapered areas, for the purpose of enabling a vehicle entering a roadway to increase its speed to a rate at which it can more safely merge with through traffic.
Access Management Manual
Anchor: #i1009149
acceptable appraisal report
An acceptable appraisal report is an appraisal report free from errors and omissions developed using methodology appropriate to the property being appraised.
Right of Way Collection
Anchor: #i1009164
acceptable entry conditions
Acceptable entry conditions are those that must exist in a permit space to allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a permit-required confined space entry can safely enter into and work within the space.
Occupational Safety Manual
Anchor: #i1009178
Acceptance Program
An Acceptance Program is defined as all factors that comprise the State highway agency’s (SHA) determination of the quality of the product as specified in the contract requirements. These factors include verification sampling, testing, and inspection and may include results of quality control sampling and testing.
Quality Assurance Program Manual
Anchor: #i1009192
  1. Access is the means by which a computer gains entry to a network in order to access another computer's resources. Access can also mean to approach, interact with or otherwise make use of information resources.
  2. Information Security Manual
  3. Access is the process of seeking data, reading data from, or writing data to a storage unit.
  4. Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1009213
access connection
Access connection is a facility for entry and/or exit such as a driveway, street, road, or highway that connects to the highways under the jurisdiction of the department or municipality.
Access Management Manual
Anchor: #i1009228
access control
Access control is the enforcement of specified authorization rules based on positive identification of user and the systems or data they are permitted to access.
Anchor: #i1009238
access criteria
Access criteria are sets of rules used as procedural controls to protect information resources. The objectives of access criteria are to protect data, software, and other information resources from unauthorized access and to facilitate authorized access for employees whose job functions require use of the information resource.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1009253
access path diagram
An access path diagram is a graphic representation of the data requirements for computer programs, consolidated into a common set of data paths used for the physical database design. As a result, when physical database structures are developed, the Database Analyst (DBA) can utilize the physical implementation options available to obtain the best possible system performance.
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1009268
access rights
Access rights are the rights of ingress to and egress from a property that abuts upon a street or highway. Access is a private right as distinguishable from rights of the public. It is a well-established law in the United States that the right of access cannot be denied or unreasonably restricted unless other reasonable access is available or provided.
Anchor: #i1009278
access roadway
An access roadway is a connection to a highway or freeway.
Anchor: #i1009293
accessor ID
An ACID is a mainframe accessor ID consisting of a three-to-seven character identifier used to define a process, organizational element, or individual to CA-Top Secret. See department accessor identification.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1009312
An accident is any occurrence involving a vehicle or motorized equipment which results in death, injury or property damage. Unless such vehicle is properly parked; it is intended that those occurrences which occur because of errors in judgment, technique of drivers, or maintenance, be considered accidents. See crash.
Occupational Safety Manual
Traffic Safety Program Manual
Anchor: #i1009333
A record of debit and credit entries chronologically posted to a ledger page to cover transactions involving a particular item or a particular person, concern, or activity.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1009348
accounting codes
Accounting codes are a list of codes assigned to highway safety program areas by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) or the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).
Traffic Safety Program Manual
Anchor: #i1009363
accounts payable
Accounts payable means a liability account to record amounts owed by the fund between incurrence of the liability and preparation of the voucher for payment.
Anchor: #i1009378
accounts receivable
Accounts receivable means an asset account to record amounts due to the fund.
Anchor: #i1009393
accounts receivable name
Person or entity owing on an account.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1009408
account total
Accumulation of charges and hours for one month, annually, or life-to-date for a specific account.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1009423
accrual basis
Accrual basis is an accounting system in which costs and revenues are recognized at the time they are incurred without regard to when cash is paid or received. The department uses a modified accrual basis that recognizes revenues when earned and expenditures when incurred.
Anchor: #i1009433
accrued depreciation
Accrued depreciation is the credit due for expired service life of capital improvements.
ROW Utility Manual
Anchor: #i1009457
Accuracy is the error or deviation of the device’s indicated value from the true value. Error is often expressed as a percentage of the true value.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1009471
Achieving Service Excellence
Achieving Service Excellence is a course developed by the Travel Division to educate travel counselors working in the department’s Travel Information Centers. ASE is the first phase of the professional travel counselor certification program.
Anchor: #i1009496
Acquisition is the process of obtaining right of way by negotiation and/or eminent domain proceedings. Negotiation would involve getting the owner to convey, dedicate, or possibly option the property to the public agency. Just compensation must be paid in all acquisitions or takings.
Anchor: #i1009506
An acronym is a word made up of first letters or parts of words of a compound term. At TxDOT, an acronym may also refer to a set of initials pronounced as individual letters.
radar - radio aid to detection and rangingFTE - full time equivalent
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1009522
action plan
An action plan is a schedule of planned activities on a form that indicates in which month during the project period each activity will occur.
Anchor: #i1009532
An activity is the line item in the Appropriation Bill that identifies a portion of one of the programs of the department.
Anchor: #i1009542
activity line item
An activity line item is a numerical code supplied by the Federal Transit Administration to identify an eligible expense budgeted within a grant.
Public Transportation Collection
Anchor: #i1009562
actual cost advance funding agreement
An advance funding agreement is used when some portion of a project’s funding is derived from an outside source (third party) other than FHWA. The agreement is entered into between TxDOT and the third party. For an actual cost advance funding agreement, an initial payment is made based upon estimated cost of the work. After a final accounting of project costs, a final adjustment is made based on the actual cost of the project. The adjustment may increase or decrease the cost to the third party when compared to the original estimate. This is referred to as the “standard” funding arrangement in 43 TAC §15.52.
Anchor: #i1009572
actual cost basis
Actual cost basis is the actual reasonable moving expenses that may be paid to a relocatee whose move is performed by a qualified mover. Also, actual cost of replacement housing.
Right of Way Collection
Anchor: #i1009587
actual percent density
Actual percent density is the quotient obtained from the nuclear gauge density of a roadway core divided by the density of the same roadway mix compacted in the gyratory press times 100.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1009601
actual quantity item
An actual quantity item is an item where final quantities of work are determined by actual measurements taken in the field.
Anchor: #i1009611
Adaptable Data Base
An adaptable Data Base is a commercially-available software package used for database computer functions. ADABAS stores information in accordance with prearranged identification keys for retrieval. ADABAS is the primary mainframe management system installed at the Texas Department of Transportation.
Anchor: #i1009626
Adapters are devices that connect systems through circuits or channels which enable them to be.
Information Services Business Improvement Project Technology 1
Anchor: #i1009642
added capacity project
An added capacity project is work proposed to add one or more through travel lanes to an existing facility.
Anchor: #i1009652
An addendum is a document used to modify an original proposal and/or plans. Becomes a legal part of the bid proposal.
Letting Manual
Anchor: #i1009666
additional cost
Additional cost is the extra cost of sampling in a remote location compared to sampling in a local city.
Anchor: #i1009676
An additive is a substance or agent added in small amounts to the basic ingredients of a mixture.
Anchor: #i1009686
ad hoc reporting
Ad hoc reporting is local programming of customized reports by accessing the FIMS database and the FIMS database file definitions (Data Dictionary) when a standard FIMS report does not contain the needed information.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1009701
adjustment cost
Adjustment cost is the total cost of the utility adjustment, after deduction of applicable credits and eligibility ratio.
ROW Utility Manual
Anchor: #i1009715
adjustment work
Adjustment work is the curative measures on remainder property. TxDOT does not perform such work due to inherent liability issues.
Right of Way Collection
Anchor: #i1009730
administering division, district or office
An administering division, district or office is the office funding and/or responsible for administering the contract.
Contract Management Manual
Anchor: #i1009744
TxDOT administration includes the Executive Director and Chief Officers.
Anchor: #i1009774
administrative documents currency list
The administrative documents currency list contains administrative documents whose content is current and is not yet incorporated into a policy or procedure manual.
Records Management Manual
Anchor: #i1009793
Administrative Evaluation Report
An Administrative Evaluation Report is TxDOT Form 1874.
Traffic Safety Program Manual
Anchor: #i1009813
administrative license revocation or suspension
Administrative license revocation or suspension pertains to the immediate revocation of an driver’s license and replacement with a limited/temporary driver’s license if the offender either refuses or fails a breath test.
Anchor: #i1009838
administrative qualification
  1. Administrative qualification is a process identified in the Texas Administrative Code to facilitate the selection and negotiation of contracts with selected professional service providers. Examples include contract with consultant engineering firms, professional land surveyors, etc.
  2. Contract Management Manual
  3. Administrative qualification is a department process conducted to determine if a prime provider or subprovider meets the requirements of 23 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 172.5(c) concerning the administration of engineering and design related service contracts.
  4. Engineering, Architectural and Surveying Services Manual
Anchor: #i1009860
Administrative Services
Formerly one of the seven functional areas of TxDOT; included the (former Budget and) Finance Division, the General Services Division and the Technology Services Division.
Anchor: #i1009875
administrative settlement
An administrative settlement is any settlement made or authorized to be made by the responsible acquiring official, which is in excess of the agencies approved value.
Right of Way Manual
Anchor: #i1009890
An administrator is a person appointed by the probate court to settle the affairs of an individual dying without a will; "Administrix", if such a person is a woman.
Right of Way Manual
Anchor: #i1009915
Adopt-a-Highway is a volunteer program that allows approved groups to pick up litter in the right of way on a regular basis during a two year commitment. This program began in 1985 in the Tyler District.
Litter Prevention Manual
Anchor: #i1009955
advanced highway advisory radio
Advanced highway advisory radio is a system where special radio receivers tune themselves to stations carrying traffic, safety, or other information where necessary.
Traffic Operations
Anchor: #i1009970
advanced compensatory time
Advanced compensatory time is compensatory time that is awarded and taken prior to having been earned (previously referred to as “negative compensatory time”). Available only to construction, maintenance, or other staff who perform construction inspection duties, under special circumstances.
Human Resources Manual
Anchor: #i1010005
Advanced Traffic Management System
The Advanced Traffic Management System is the TxDOT intelligent transportation system (ITS), which runs on the Windows NT operating system.
ATMS Operators Manual
Anchor: #i1010048
advance warning equipment
Advance warning equipment is a device, with or without motive power, designed to display instructions or an advance warning to motorists of the presence of a vehicular traffic hazard requiring the exercise of care in approaching, overtaking, or passing. It includes arrow boards and changeable message boards.
Equipment Manual
Anchor: #i1010064
adverse effect
Adverse effect is a determination reached as part of the Section 106 process. An undertaking is considered to have an "adverse effect" on a historic property if it diminishes the integrity of the property's location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling or association. An adverse effect may be direct or indirect. This determination is reached in consultation with the State Historic Preservation Officer. (See also no effect, no adverse effect and Section 106.)
Environmental Manual
Anchor: #i1010088
adverse personnel action
Adverse personnel action is an action that affects an employee’s compensation, promotion, demotion, transfer, work assignment or performance evaluation.
Human Resources Manual
Anchor: #i1010103
adverse weather condition
Adverse weather condition is severe weather that causes unsafe conditions.
Travel Manual
Anchor: #i1010133
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation is an independent federal agency composed of 19 members charged with advising the President and Congress on historic preservation matters and administering the provisions of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Projects in Texas are reviewed at the Advisory Council's Washington, D. C. office.
Environmental Manual
Anchor: #i1010152
aerial photogrammetry
  1. Aerial photogrammetry is the science that uses photographs of the earth’s surface and the natural and artificial objects on the earth to make various kinds of maps.
  2. A map or survey made using controlled aerial photographs (i.e., photographs showing surveyed control points).
Anchor: #i1010162
aerial photography
Photos taken from the air at regular, spatial intervals and used in photo interpretation to provide much information about landforms. The topography is distorted, and until corrections are made for the distortion, measurements made from a photograph are not accurate. Aerial photographs can be used to produce aerial photogrammetry and digital orthophotography.
Anchor: #i1010183
aerial sewer
An aerial sewer is an unburied sewer (generally sanitary type), supported on pedestals or bents to provide a suitable grade line.
Anchor: #i1010193
An affidavit is a certification, sworn before a notary public or other official.
Anchor: #i1010213
agency fund
The Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) definition is a fund used to account for assets held in a custodial capacity for other entities or individuals.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1010234
agency item number
The agency item number is a location reference on the TxDOT records retention schedule used for indexing and citation of official state records described in the schedule. It consists of the using DDO’s functional account number, a three-letter acronym for the record type or responsible organizational unit, and a number signifying it’s sequence in the TxDOT records retention schedule.
Records Management Manual
Anchor: #i1001899
agency number
An agency number is a three-digit number assigned to a state agency by the Comptroller of Public Accounts.The Texas Department of Transportation is agency number 601.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1010262
agency voucher
See " highway voucher."
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1010279
An agent is a person or entity legally acting on the behalf of another.
Right of Way Manual
Anchor: #i1010294
An agreement is a meeting of the minds.
Contract Management Manual
Anchor: #i1010308
  1. Aggregate is the hard granular material of mineral composition such as sand, gravel, slag, limestone rock, or crushed stone, used for mixing with asphalt to produce asphaltic concrete pavement or other bituminous materials.
  2. Aggregate is granular material of mineral composition such as sand, gravel, shell, slag, crushed stone or lightweight. Aggregate may be used with a cementing medium to form mortars or concrete, or alone in base courses or as a surface treatment. NOTE: This definition has been approved by the Specification Committee.
  3. Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1010334
agitator tube
An agitator tube is a device for keeping liquids and solids-in-liquids in motion by mixing and stirring.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1010368
air voids
Air voids are the pockets of air trapped between the asphalt-coated particles of aggregate in an asphaltic concrete pavement.
Anchor: #i1010398
On the plasticity chart, A-line is a sloped line beginning at PI = 4 and LL - 25.5f with an equation of Pi = 0l.73 (LL-20).
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1010422
An algorithm is a mathematical procedure used by encryption processes.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1010437
Algorithmic Language
Algorithmic Language is a scientific/engineering programming language very similar to FORTRAN.
Anchor: #i1010452
An alias is an approved alternate name for something, to be used when conditions make it impractical to use the official name.
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1010467
alien lawfully present
Alien lawfully present is an unnaturalized or other non-citizen of the United States, lawfully registered with the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) under federal provisions.
Right of Way Collection
Anchor: #i1010482
Alignments refer to the geometric design elements that define the horizontal and vertical configuration of the roadways.
Anchor: #i1010502
  1. Allocation is an administrative distribution of funds among the states. This is done for funds which do not have statutory distribution formulas.Examples include Bridge Discretionary, Emergency Relief, or Federal funds.
  2. Allocation is the amount of new transportation planning funds distributed each year. The amount of FHWA metropolitan transportation planning funds allocated to each MPO is based on the urbanized population and air quality designation. Each MPO receives FTA Section 5303 planning funds.
  3. Transportation Planning and Programming Collection
Anchor: #i1010523
allocation CSJ
The allocation CJS is the control section job (CSJ) number that will receive cost allocation when construction-engineering charges are coded on input to the primary CSJ number.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1010538
allocation percent
The allocation percent is the percentage of input amount the control section job (CSJ) number will be allocated.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1010553
alligator cracking
  1. Alligator cracking is an asphaltic concrete pavement distress type. Alligator cracking consists of interconnecting cracks which form small (less than 1 foot by 1 foot), irregularly-shaped blocks which resemble the patterns found on an alligator’s skin. Alligator cracking ranges from 0 to 100 percent of the wheelpath length.
  2. Pavement Management Information System Users Manual
  3. Alligator cracking is a type of distress that is generally caused by inadequate base support or brittle asphalt surface. Since cracks allow surface water to enter the subgrade and further destroy the stability of the subgrade, sealing should be accomplished as soon as practical. When cracking has progressed to the extent that failure of the roadway surface is imminent, repairs should be made as soon as possible. The alligator cracked surface material approaching failure will normally have to be removed and replaced with asphalt patching material. Where the base is unstable or wet the base material will need to be removed, replaced or stabilized.
  4. Maintenance Collection
Anchor: #i1010573
Allotment is the number of FTEs (full time equivalents) that a district/division may have employed at one time.
Anchor: #i1010583
alternate bid item
An alternate bid item is one that may be substituted for the primary item of work and bid on by the contractor. The alternate must be listed on the proposal and plans. The primary bid item and the alternate must be equivalent in quality and performance. The total estimated construction cost must be the same for the primary bid item and its alternative.
Design and Construction Information System Manual
Anchor: #i1010597
alternate procedure
Alternate procedure is the term derives from 23CFR §645.119, Alternate Procedure, which allows a state transportation department “… to act in the relative position of the FHWA for reviewing and approving the arrangements, fees, estimates, plans, agreements, and other related matters” including “all actions necessary to advance and complete all types of utility work”, with certain exceptions; (refer to 23CFR §645.119, (b) (1), et seq.). The term, Alternate Procedure, as a Subprocess of “The Process”, has been renamed to Federal Utility Procedure to differentiate it from the Alternate Procedure relating to the CFR.
ROW Utility Manual
Anchor: #i1010615
alternating current
Alternating current means the current and voltage alternates from maximum positive to maximum negative in a sinusoidal pattern.
Highway Illumination Manual
Anchor: #i1010634
alternative fuels
Alternative fuels are the following fuels recognized by statute for use in Texas: compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol (M-85), ethanol (E-85) and electricity.
Equipment Manual
Anchor: #i1010669
Amarillo District
The Amarillo District is a TxDOT district office including the following counties: Armstrong, Carson, Dallam, Deaf Smith, Gray, Hansford, Hartley, Hemphill, Hutchinson, Lipscomb, Moore, Ochiltree, Oldham, Potter, Randall, Roberts, and Sherman. Area offices are located in Amarillo, Borger, Canyon, and Pampa. TxDOT also operates a Travel Information Center in the district.
Inside TxDOT
Anchor: #i1010689
An amendment is a permanent change in one or more of the elements of the contract.
Contract Management Manual
Anchor: #i1010703
amendment number
A sequential number assigned to an amendment.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1010748
American Association of State Highway Officials
The American Association of State Highway Officials, the predecessor to AASHTO, has been terminated, but its past work is still used as a reference.
Anchor: #i1010763
American Association of State Highway Officials Road Test
AASHO Road Test
The AASHO Road Test was a large-scale road test conceived and sponsored by AASHO in the early 1950s to determine significant relationships between pavement performance and pavement design when roads are subjected to various loads.
Pavement Management Information System User's Manual
Anchor: #i1010902
American Public Transit Association
The American Public Transportation Association is a national transit trade association.
Public Transportation Collection
Anchor: #i1010934
American Railway Engineering Association
See American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association.
Anchor: #i1010949
American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association
An association for the development and advancement of both technical and practical knowledge and recommended practices pertaining to the design, construction, and maintenance of railway infrastructure. Formed October 1, 1997, as the result of a merger of the American Railway Bridge and Building Association, the American Railway Engineering Association, and the Roadmasters and Maintenance of Way Association.
Bridge Detailing Manual
Anchor: #recovery_act
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act [Pub. L. 111-5] became law on February 17, 2009. ARRA goals include the preservation or creation of jobs and the promotion of an economic recovery, as well as the investment in transportation, environmental protection and other infrastructure providing long-term economic benefits.
Transit capital improvements and limited funding for operating expenses are available through various Federal Transit Administration programs.
Public Transportation Collection
Anchor: #i1010999
American Society for Testing and Materials
The American Society for Testing and Materials is often referred to in specifications and standards documents.
Anchor: #i1011024
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a standardized 7-bit code that includes control characters such as carriage returns and tabs, along with text.
Information Technology and Services Manual
Anchor: #i1011103
Americans with Disabilities Act Accessible Vehicle
ADA Accessible Vehicle
An ADA Accessible Vehicle complies with the accessibility requirements of 49CFR Part 38, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Specifications for Transportation Vehicles.
Public Transportation Collection
Anchor: #i1002035
Americans with Disabilities Act Complementary Paratransit Service
ADA Complementary Paratransit Service
ADA Complementary Paratransit Service, required by 49CFR Part 37. Each public entity operating a fixed route system must provide paratransit or other special service to individuals with disabilities. This service must be comparable to the level of service provided to individuals without disabilities who use the fixed route system and must be available within a ¾ mile radius of the routes.
Public Transportation Collection
Anchor: #i1011143
ampere I
Ampere I is the unit of current strength (flow of electrons)
Illumination Manual
Anchor: #i1011157
Analog is a term for a tone grayscale or color image. For better understanding of this effect, look at a black-and-white conventionally produced graphic, not digital (for example, a conventional photograph or a painting or drawing done by hand on paper).
Communications Manual
Anchor: #i1011171
analysis period
Analysis period is the period of time for which the economic analysis is to be made; ordinarily will include at least one rehabilitation activity.
Pavement Design Manual
Anchor: #i1011186
angle of repose
The angle of repose is the angle which the sloping face of a bank of loose earth, gravel, or other material makes with the horizontal.
Occupational Safety Manual
Anchor: #i1011200
Annexation - A fixture, architecturally part of an improvement, whose individual utility would cease if separated from the improvement.
Right of Way Collection
Anchor: #i1011215
Anonymous File Transfer Protocol
An anonymous FTP is the use of File Transfer Protocol (FTP) with user identification of “anonymous.”
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1011229
Anonymous File Transfer Protocol Site
An anonymous FTP site is an Internet site that contains files that can be downloaded by anyone using FTP. The directory for an anonymous FTP site is isolated from the rest of the system and generally does not accept uploads from users (see FTP and FTP Site).
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1011243
annual average daily traffic
  1. The annual average daily traffic is 24-hour axle counts for a segment of roadway to which seasonal factors and axle correction factors are applied to develop the AADT. AADT may be further defined as:1) Historic AADT - A record of AADT for previous years, used to develop growth factors for estimating current and/or future AADT. 2) Current AADT - The most recent AADT estimate for a roadway segment. 3) Forecasted AADT - A 20-year projection of AADT developed using linear regression and 10 years of historic AADT. 4) Modeled AADT - The AADT produced by the travel demand models. Modeled AADT may be for the base year or for a forecast year.
  2. Traffic Data and Analysis Manual
  3. The annual average daily traffic is the total traffic for a year divided by 365. Usually, AADT is adjusted for day of the week, seasonal variations, and or vehicle classification. TxDOT records contain information for AADT for all highways on the state maintained system, except frontage roads.
Anchor: #i1011274
annual budget
  1. The annual budget is the total budget as approved by the legislature.
  2. The annual budget is a group of appropriations which the department has the authority to expend or encumber in a fiscal year.
Anchor: #i1011295
annual flood
An annual flood is the highest peak discharge in a water year.
Anchor: #i1011305
apparent joint spacing
Apparent joint spacing is a Pavement Management Information System term which is the approximate average spacing between transverse joints on a Jointed Concrete Pavement, whether they were originally constructed or not. Apparent joint spacing ranges from 15 to 75 feet.
Pavement Management Information System Rater's Manual
Anchor: #i1011319
apparent specific gravity
Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight in air of a given volume of the water impermeable portion of a permeable material at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of distilled water at a stated temperature.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1011333
An application is a software system that supports a business activity by providing access to stored data and the ability to manipulate and use that data.
Anchor: #i1011343
application architecture
The application architecture identifies the application systems needed to support the business needs and data requirements of the department. It is a model of all applications (existing and future) required to support the actions of the business, with an emphasis on sharing information resources.
Information Systems Business Project Retooling
Anchor: #i1011358
application developer
An application developer is a professional engaged in the creation of computer applications.
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1011373
application development architecture
The application development architecture provides the framework, principles, guidelines, minimum standards/specifications, and policies/procedures for application development and maintenance. It is a subset of the Technology Architecture and includes those elements directly related to the application development process.
Information Systems Business Project Retooling
Anchor: #i1011388
application programming interface
Application programming Interface is a standard protocol enabling one process such as an application program to interact with another process such as a database network.
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1011408
application project manager
An application project manager is the programmer responsible for the development or maintenance of the application.
Anchor: #i1011418
application security administrator
Application security administrator is a TxDOT employee responsible for providing security and administrative services for a specific system or application in the production environment. The application security administrator should not be a regular user on the system or application.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1011433
application server
An application server is a computing platform whose primary function is to provide application-oriented services to users within the business environment.
Information Services Business Improvement Project Technology 1
Anchor: #i1011448
An applicator is a facility which performs the epoxy coating of reinforcing steel bar, fabric, or wire.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1011477
Apportionment is a term which refers to a statutorily-prescribed division or assignment of funds. An apportionment is based on prescribed formulas in the law and consists of dividing authorized obligation authority for a specific program among the states. Examples include Interstate Maintenance (IM), National Highway system (NHS), Surface Transportation Program (STP), Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ), and Bridge Replacement and Repair (BRR) programs.
Transportation Planning and Programming Collection
Anchor: #i1011493
appraisal (ROW)
  1. An appraisal is a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting forth an opinion of defined value of an adequately described property as of a specific date, supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information.
  2. Appraisals of property involve determining fair market value of property interests by a professional appraiser.
  3. Right of Way Manual
Anchor: #i1011508
appraisal problem
Appraisal problem is a narrative discussion regarding items or situations that affect the appraisal of the acquisition.
Right of Way Collection
Anchor: #i1011524
approach nose
An approach nose is the end of an island, or neutral area between two roadways, which faces approaching traffic that passes on one side or both sides.
Anchor: #i1011534
approach slab
An approach slab is a reinforced concrete slab constructed between a bridge abutment and the adjacent roadway that absorbs the impact of loads produced by traffic passing from the roadway onto the bridge and to the roadway.
Anchor: #i1011544
appropriated adjustments
Appropriated adjustments are revisions to the original appropriation amount.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1011559
appropriation (state or federal)
  1. Appropriation (state) is the legal authorization to obligate expenditures during a stated period. The state legislature makes appropriations biennially. Payments for the expenditures may be made by the department up to two years after the close of the fiscal year in which the goods or services were received for non-capital budget appropriations and up to four years after the close of the fiscal year in which the goods or services were received for capital budget appropriations.
  2. Finance Division
  3. Appropriations (federal) are funds set aside by the U.S. Congress for specific programs. In most cases, an appropriation allows money previously authorized to be obligated and spent. But for the highway program operating under contract authority, appropriations specify the amounts of funds that Congress will make available to liquidate prior obligations.
Anchor: #i1011574
appropriation account
An appropriation account is an accounting entity established by the comptroller and identified by an appropriation number. It records the total amount appropriated for a purpose, which is established by the legislature, adjustments to that amount, the amounts expended, and any remaining or lapsed amounts.
Anchor: #i1011585
Appropriation Bill
The Appropriation Bill is the basic law of the legislature that authorizes the expenditure of state funds. The bill cannot authorize any expenditure of public money unless there is statutory authority for such expenditure. The Texas Constitution limits the appropriations in this bill to two years.
Anchor: #i1011595
appropriation number
The appropriation number is the number that identifies the appropriation line item with which the cost center is associated (Ref. FIMS Code Chart 81).
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1011615
appropriation year
The appropriation year is the year that the legal authorization for the charge was granted by the legislature.
Finance Division
Anchor: #i1011635
approved appraiser
An approved appraiser is an appraiser approved by the Appraiser Approval Committee who is qualified to provide appraisal services for the department.
Anchor: #i1011655
Aprons are the floor or lining to protect a surface of the waterway from erosion.
Anchor: #i1011665
approved manufacturer
An approved manufacturer is a manufacturer certified by TxDOT as having an acceptable quality monitoring program.
Anchor: #i1011675
approved warehouse
An approved warehouse is a warehouse maintained and operated by an approved manufacturer or an approved manufacturer’s representative, under a contractual agreement with TxDOT, for the purpose of storing tested products for TxDOT projects or purchase orders.
Anchor: #i1011685
An aquifer is the geologic formation or structure that transmits water in sufficient quantity to supply the needs for a water development. The term water-bearing is sometimes used synonymously with aquifer when a stratum furnishes water for a specific use. Aquifers are usually saturated sands, gravel, fractures, cavernous, and vesicular rock.
Anchor: #i1011695
Arbiter is an electronic data transfer program.
Anchor: #i1011705
archaeology or archeology
Archaeology is the study of past human societies using material cultural remains.
Environmental Manual
Anchor: #i1011719
An archaeologist is a specialist who studies the past to record and analyze earlier human societies using scientific methods.
Environmental Manual
Anchor: #i1011733
archeological steward
An archeological steward is an avocational archeologist who has met certain criteria of archeological stewardship and has been appointed an Archeological Steward by the Texas Historic Commission. Texas has approximately 60 such stewards; their names and addresses are among the list of preservation contacts provided to each district by ENV.
Environmental Affairs Division
Anchor: #i1011748
archeological survey
An archeological survey is a systematic attempt to find, identify and record any evidence of past human occupations on the ground in the natural geographic setting and environmental context.
Environmental Manual
Anchor: #i1011762
Archie is a tool used to conduct a subject search on a database that holds all known File Transfer Protocol (FTP) sites on the Internet. If you are looking for information or programs on a specific topic, try a search using Archie.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1011776
architectural assessment
An architectural assessment addresses security requirements and statutory mandates to establish a recommended minimum baseline for security architecture.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1011791
architectural principal
An architectural principle represents an architectural assumption or foundation that has been documented and around which the technological architecture has been designed and constructed.
Information Services Business Improvement Project Technology 1
Anchor: #i1011806
An architecture is a unifying or coherent form or structure. See “information technology architecture.”
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1011820
Archival is the process of copying data that is maintained on a operational system in real-time to some other type of storage device such as another system or to a data warehouse and is from that point forward used only for “read-only” historical analysis or a similar type of activity.
Information Services Business Improvement Project Technology 1
Anchor: #i1011834
archival record
A TxDOT record scheduled to be reviewed by, or that has been approved by, an archive for permanent preservation.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1011849
An archive is a place where files are stored and made available through a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) session.
Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1011873
area of potential effect
Area of potential effect is the geographic area or areas within which an undertaking may cause changes in the character or use of historic properties, if any such properties exist there. This area always includes the actual site of the undertaking and may also include other areas where the undertaking will cause changes in land use, traffic patterns or other factors that could affect historic properties.
Environmental Manual
Anchor: #i1011892
area type
a density designation given to each traff serial zone which assists in quantifying differences in traffic signal spacing, maximum permissible speeds and other factors that ultimately relate to assigning network link speed and capacity. Area types are determined using a formula based on a function of population and employment density.
Traffic Data and Analysis Manual
Anchor: #i1011916
arterial highway
An arterial highway is a general term denoting a highway primarily for through traffic, usually on a continuous route.
Anchor: #i1011926
as soon as possible
As soon as possible means that necessary repairs or corrective action will be performed as soon as required materials, equipment, and labor can be assembled. When the safety of the traveling public is comprised, resources will be committed as needed to perform necessary repairs and/or erect signs and barricades to protect traffic.
Maintenance Collection
Anchor: #i1011941
as soon as practical
As soon as practical means that repairs will be made or corrective action will be taken when required materials, equipment, and labor are available and the work can be performed in the current work schedule.
Maintenance Collection
Anchor: #i1011956
The as-of-date indicates the financial status of an activity or account on a certain date.
Anchor: #i1011966
Asbestos is any of several minerals that readily separate into long flexible fibers suitable for use as a noncombustible, non-conducting or chemically-resistant material. When airborne, these fibers become a respiratory hazard.
Occupational Safety Manual
Anchor: #i1011990
asbestos protection
Asbestos protection is when fibers of asbestos felt are embedded in the galvanized coating of sheet steel to enable bituminous coatings to adhere more tenaciously and to provide greater corrosion resistance.
Anchor: #i1012000
ascending reference marker direction
Ascending reference marker direction is the direction of travel in which the reference marker numbers increase.
Texas Reference Marker (TRM) System User's Manual
Anchor: #i1012015
ash factor
Ash factor is an amount of ash that is to be used repeatedly as part of the total aggregate portion of an extraction test. It takes the place of the ash value usually determined for each extraction.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1012029
Asphalt is a dark brown to black bituminous material, either natural or refined from petroleum, used to cement aggregate particles together to form asphaltic concrete. Asphalt is a thermoplastic material, because its viscosity changes with temperature.
Anchor: #i1012039
asphalt binder
Asphalt binder, which can be asphalt cement or modified asphalt cement, acts as a binding agent to glue aggregate particles into a cohesive mass.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Federal Highway Administration
Anchor: #i1012057
asphalt cement
Asphalt cement is that which has been specifically prepared or refined to standards of quality and consistency. It is prepared for direct use in the manufacture of asphalt pavements.
Anchor: #i1012067
asphalt leveling course
Asphalt leveling course is a layer of variable thickness used to prepare an existing pavement for a new uniform surface layer. It is usually called “level-up course.
Anchor: #i1012077
asphalt patches
Asphalt patches are a continuously reinforced concrete pavement distress type in which a localized area of asphalt concrete has been placed to the full depth of the surrounding concrete slab, as a temporary method of correcting surface or structural defects. Asphalt patches range from 0 to 999.
Pavement Management Information System Users Manual
Anchor: #i1012091
asphaltic concrete
Asphaltic concrete is a hot mixture of asphalt cement and aggregate compacted into a uniform dense mass.
Anchor: #i1012101
asphaltic concrete pavement
Asphaltic concrete pavement is a compacted mixture of mineral aggregate and asphaltic materials. An ACP overlay is a supplemental base-pavement or wearing surface placed on an existing base-pavement or wearing surface where major repairs to a pavement structure are required to restore a satisfactory riding surface or upgrade the strength of the pavement structure.
Anchor: #i1012116
Assessing Community Traffic Safety
Assessing Community Traffic Safety is a method for analyzing traffic safety problems within a community and a set of plans for implementing proven programs that address the identified traffic safety problems.
Traffic Safety Program Manual
Anchor: #i1012136
asset inventory
The asset inventory is a comprehensive identification of all department information services software/hardware
Information Services Business Improvement Project Technology 1
Anchor: #i1012151
assignment of payment
Assignment of payment is the legal transfer of a right or property. An assignment is the transfer of the right to payment. An assignment involves at least two parties: the assignor and the assignee. The assignor (vendor) is the party transferring the right to payment. The assignee is the party receiving the right to payment.
Purchasing Manual
Anchor: #i1012166
assistant attorney general
An assistant attorney general is a member of the legal staff of the Office of the Attorney General who represents the State during litigation.
Right of Way Manual
Anchor: #i1012236
associative entity type
An associative entity type is an entity type that relates two or more entity types having a many-to-many relationship. Minimally, unique identifiers are established by the relationships to the other entity types. Additional attribute type identifiers may be added as appropriate.
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1012251
asymmetric digital subscriber line
An asymmetric digital subscriber line is a digital subscriber line. It is a new technology, which allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines.
Information Security Manual
asymmetric key cryptography
An asymmetric key cryptography is based on a mathematical discovery in the 1970’s: there exist pairs of numbers, such that data encrypted with one member of the pair can be decrypted by the other member of the pair and by no other means. The number made know to the public is called the public key; the number kept secret is call the private key, which is also called the Public Key Cryptography.
Source: Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1012271
asynchronous transfer mode
Asynchronous transfer mode is a standard developed for high-speed networking, capable of supporting all types of information flow including voice, data and images.
Information Services Business Improvement Project Technology 1
Anchor: #i1012291
At-grade means a combination of horizontal alignments and vertical grade lines which intersect.
Anchor: #i1012301
Atlanta District
The Atlanta District is a TxDOT district office including the following counties: Bowie, Camp, Cass, Harrison, Marion, Morris, Panola, Titus, and Upshur. Area offices are located in Atlanta, Carthage, Gilmer, Marshall, Mount Pleasant, and Texarkana. The district is also home to two Travel Information Centers, one in Texarkana and one in Waskom.
Inside TxDOT
Anchor: #i1012320
attainment area
  1. An attainment area, as defined by the USEPA in the CAAA of 1990, is an area considered to have air quality as good as, or better than, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined in the Clean Air Act. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a non-attainment for others.
  2. An attainment area is a designation given to urban areas which are in compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
  3. Traffic Data and Analysis Manual
Anchor: #i1012336
An attendant is an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant’s duties assigned in the employer’s permit space program.
Occupational Safety Manual
Anchor: #i1012350
Attenuators are traffic safety devices such as sand-filled plastic barrels, vermiculite concrete cartridges, and steel drums placed around fixed objects to moderate and cushion vehicle impacts. They are commonly called crash cushions.
Anchor: #i1012360
attorney ad litem
An attorney ad litem is a court-appointed attorney who represents the interests of:
  • a person or persons whose identity and/or whereabouts are unknown; or
  • a mentally incompetent person or persons; or
  • a minor or minors.
Right of Way Manual
Anchor: #i1012400
Attractions are trips to and from a work place made by employees and non-employees. They are computed by trip purpose as well as by mode of travel. Attraction rates refer to the total attractions for a work place divided by the number of employees at the work place. Attraction rates are also developed for households.
Traffic Data and Analysis Manual
Anchor: #i1012414
An attribute is a property or characteristic that describes an entity. It is a fact that has the same format, interpretation, and domain for all occurrences of an entity type. An attribute is a conceptual representation of a type of fact that is implemented as a field in a record, a data element in a database file, or a column in a table. For entity type EMPLOYEE, attributes could be EMPLOYEE.
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1012430
attribute name
An attribute name is the official name of an attribute which has been composed according to standard.
Enterprise Data Management
Anchor: #i1012445
Audit is the formal examination of accounts.
Travel Manual
Anchor: #i1012460
audit, final
See final audit.
Anchor: #i1012472
audit, interim
See interim audit.
Anchor: #i1012484
audit, pre-negotiated
See pre-negotiated audit.
Anchor: #i1012496
Audit Office
The Audit Office conducts independent audits of department operations and contractors for financial contract compliance.
Inside TxDOT
Anchor: #i1012515
Austin District
The Austin District is a TxDOT district office including the following counties: Bastrop, Blanco, Burnet, Caldwell, Gillespie, Hays, Lee, Llano, Mason, Travis, and Williamson. Area offices are located in North Austin, South Austin, Bastrop, Burnet, and Georgetown. The district also has a Travel Information Center and a Vehicle Titles and Registration Regional Office.
Inside TxDOT
Anchor: #i1012544
  1. Authentication is to positively verify the identity of a user, device, or other entity in a computer sys-tem, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in a system.
  2. Authentication is the process that verifies the claimed identity of an automation user as established by an identification process.
  3. Information Security Manual
Anchor: #i1012554
  1. Authorization is a positive determination by the Office of Primary Responsibility (OPR) that a specific individual may access a specific information resource.
  2. Information Security Manual
  3. Authorization is the validation that a positively identified user has the need and the Office of Primary Responsibility’s (OPR) permission to access an information resource.
  4. Information Security Manual
  5. Authorization is the actual amount that the MPO is allowed to spend in each fiscal year. After the FHWA approves the UPWP, a letter of authorization is issued to TxDOT. The authorization may be less than what was programmed due to carryover amounts not being finalized.
  6. Transportation Planning and Programming Collection
Anchor: #i1012580
authorized employee
An authorized employee is a person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment.
Occupational Safety Manual
Anchor: #i1012594
authorized entrant
An authorized entrant is a trained/qualified employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit space.
Occupational Safety Manual
Anchor: #i1012618
auto driver trips
Auto driver trips are trips made by drivers of personal vehicles. These are usually summed for all members of a household and reported as auto driver trips per household and referred to as the auto driver trip rate.
Traffic Data and Analysis Manual
Anchor: #i1012642
Automated Environmental Data Acquisition System
The Automated Environmental Data Acquisition System is a system used by the Environmental Affairs Division to obtain information necessary in building highways.
Anchor: #i1012667
automated information system
Automated information system refers to products and services that are associated with computers or telecommunications systems.
Procurement Manual
Anchor: #i1012696
Automated Purchasing System
Automated Purchasing System is a fully automated, department-wide, mainframe system administered by the General Services Division, which is used for the request and purchase of all goods and services for TxDOT.
Purchasing Manual
Anchor: #i1012716
Automated Receiving Report System
The automated receiving report system alerts the Finance Division of the authorization to pay invoices. The system alleviates the need for a manual receiving report.
Procurement Manual
Anchor: #i1012736
Automated Roadway Inventory diagram
The Automated Roadway Inventory diagram takes information from the Texas Reference Marker (TRM) System database and:
  • creates an automated straight-line diagram of the selected route.
  • replaces the previously hand-drawn RI-1 diagram, which is TPP’s visual roadway record, showing all highways maintained by the department
  • allows the TRM user to produce an accurate and current graphical representation of any desired section of highway in the TRM database
  • is a computer-generated straight-line diagram of a highway that consists of graphics and text:
    • Graphics portion of the diagram appears across the middle of the page showing features and readings of the roadway.
    • Text appears above and below the graphics showing roadbed-specific and administrative data.
Texas Reference Marker (TRM) System User's Manual
Anchor: #i1012806
automated vehicle identification system
A system in which electronic equipment, such as transponders, on a vehicle sends signals to reader antennae placed at strategic locations that send data back to a central control facility, locating the vehicle and providing other information about its operations or about its mechanical condition. AVI is also referred to as Automatic Vehicle Monitoring System and Automatic Vehicle Location System.
Anchor: #i1012873
automobile graveyard
An automobile graveyard is an establishment that is maintained, used or operated for storing, buying, or selling wrecked, scrapped, ruined or dismantled motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts.
Right of Way Manual
Anchor: #i1012888
Automobile Theft Prevention Authority
ATPA is a section in the Vehicle Titles and Registration Division.
Anchor: #i1012903
auxiliary lane
Auxiliary lane is a lane striped for use as an acceleration lane, or deceleration lane, right-turn lane, or left-turn lane, but not for through traffic use.
Access Management Manual
Anchor: #i1012917
available bidding capacity
Available bidding capacity is the contractor's approved bidding capacity less uncompleted work under contract, including reductions due to sanctions.
Maintenance Contract Manual
Anchor: #i1012931
available personnel
Available personnel is the total number of personnel employed by the provider proposed to be used on the advertised contract.
Engineering, Architectural and Surveying Services Manual
Anchor: #i1012956
average annual daily traffic
Average annual daily traffic is 24-hour axle counts for a segment of roadway to which seasonal factors and axle correction factors are applied to develop the AADT. AADT may be further defined as:
  • Historic AADT - A record of AADT for previous years, used to develop growth factors for estimating current and/or future AADT.
  • Current AADT - The most recent AADT estimate for a roadway segment.
  • Forecasted AADT - A 20-year projection of AADT developed using linear regression and 10 years of historic AADT (see �future ADT).
Transportation Planning and Programming Collection
Anchor: #i1012993
average coach airfare
Average coach airfare is the arithmetic mean of the unrestricted "Y" class fares offered by all airlines to a particular destination as quoted in American Airlines' Sabre system or in Worldspan's PARS reservation system.
Travel Manual
Anchor: #i1013008
average crack spacing
Average crack spacing is a Pavement Management Information System term which is the approximate average spacing between transverse cracks on a continuously reinforced concrete pavement. Average crack spacing ranges from 1 to 75 feet.
Pavement Management Information System Rater's Manual
Anchor: #i1013032
average daily traffic
Average daily traffic volume represents the total two-way traffic on a roadway for some period less than a year, divided by the total number of days it represents, and includes both weekday and weekend traffic. Usually, ADT is adjusted for day of the week, seasonal variations, and/or vehicle classification.
Access Management Manual
Anchor: #i1013052
average of ten heaviest wheel loads daily
Average 10 heaviest wheel loads is data developed using 18 KESALS data for pavement design.
Traffic Data and Analysis Manual
Anchor: #i1013081
Aviation Division
The Aviation Division is the TxDOT division that receives, disburses, and administers federal and state funds for general aviation airports. The division is responsible for helping small communities build, maintain, and upgrade airports.
Inside TxDOT
Anchor: #i1013100
axial (major principal stress)
The axial (major principal stress) is the axial load divided by the average area of the cylindrical specimen.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1013114
axial load
Axial load is the sum of the applied load and the dead load (including the weight of the top porous stone, metal block and bell housing) applied along the vertical axis of the test specimen.
Manual of Testing Procedures
Anchor: #i1013128
axle load
An axle load is the total load transmitted by all wheels on an axle unit, the center of which may be included between two parallel transverse vertical planes extending across the full width of the vehicle.
Anchor: #i1013138
The azimuth is a surveying observation used to measure the angle formed by a horizaontal baseline and geodetic north. When applied to GPS observations, it refers to a normal section azimuth.
Survey Manual
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