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Section 8: References

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ (AASHTO), 2008. Guide Specifications for Bridges Vulnerable to Coastal Storms. Available at:

Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures Experience, Selection, and Design Guidance Third Edition, Volume 1. Report No. FHWA-NHI-09-111, Hydraulic Engineering Circular 23. Available at:

Brooks/Cole, 2002. Factors Affecting Wind Wave Development. Accessed at:

Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2005. FEMA 480 National Flood Insurance Program Floodplain Management Requirements-A study guide and desk reference for local officials. Available at:

Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2013. Operating Guidance for Improving the Identification and Mapping of the Limit of Moderate Wave Action (LiMWA) on Regulatory and Non-Regulatory NFIP Products. Available at:

Federal Highway Administration, 2008. Highways in the Coastal Environment, FHWA-NHI-07-096. Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.25 (HEC-25). US Department of Transportation. Accessed at:

Florida Department of Transportation, 2009. Temporary Design Bulletin C09-08. Wave Forces on Bridges- Implementation of AASHTO Guide Specifications for Bridges Vulnerable to Coastal Storms. Accessed at:

NOAA National Hurricane Center, n.d. Storm Surge vs. Storm Tide graphic (NOAA/The COMET Program). Available at:

NOAA Tides and Currents, 2019. Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services. Available at:

NOAA Vertical Datum Transformation, A tutorial on Datums. Available at:

Pearson Education, Inc., 2011. Longshore Transport. Accessed at:

Texas General Land Office, 2019. Texas Coastal Resiliency Master Plan. Available at:

Thompson, E.F. and C.L. Vincent. 1985. Significant Wave Height for Shallow Water Design. American Society of Civil Engineers. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering: Vol. 111, Issue 5. Available at:

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002. Coastal Engineering Manual (CEM). Engineer Manual 1110-2-1100, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. (in 6 volumes). Available at:

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Galveston District Southwestern Division, 2018. Appendix D: Engineering Design, Cost Estimates, and Cost Risk Analysis for the Coastal Protection and Restoration Study Integrated Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement, October.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers New Orleans District, 2012. Hurricane and Storm Damage Risk Reduction System Design Guidelines: Chapter 5.0 - Structures (updated 20 Mar 12). Available at:

University of Hawaii, n.d. Wave-Coast Interactions. Available at:

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