Section 2: Primary References

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Major Standards, Manuals, and Technical Advisories

Many standards, manuals, and technical advisories have been developed over the years related to bridge inspection. Most of these were issued by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), whose name was changed in 1973 to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), or by the FHWA. The major publications related to bridge inspection with their issue dates are:

  • AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 5th Edition (2010)
  • AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation, Second Edition (2011)
  • AASHTO Guide Manual for Bridge Element Inspection, First Edition (2011)
  • AASHTO Guide for Commonly Recognized Structural Elements (1998)
  • AASHTO Manual for Condition Evaluation of Bridges (1994)
  • AASHTO Manual for Maintenance Inspection of Bridges (1974, 1978, 1983, and 1993)
  • AASHO Manual for Maintenance Inspection of Bridges (1970)
  • FHWA Bridge Inspector's Reference Manual (2002 and 2006)
  • FHWA, Bridge Inspector's Training Manual 90, 1991
  • FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 (about 1988)
  • FHWA "Scour at Bridges," a technical advisory (1988)
  • FHWA Inspection of Fracture Critical Bridge Members (1986)
  • FHWA Bridge Inspector's Training Manual 70 (1979)
  • FHWA Culvert Inspection Manual (about 1979)
  • FHWA The Bridge Inspector's Manual for Movable Bridges (1977)
  • FHWA Recording and Coding Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nation's Bridges (1972, 1979, 1988, 1991, and 1995)
  • FHWA National Bridge Inspection Standards (1971, 1979, and 1988)
  • Code of Federal Regulations, 23 Highways Part 650, Subpart C - National Bridge Inspection Standards.

Hereinafter, references to AASHO will be called AASHTO for consistency.

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