Section 3: Shoulders and Approaches GuidelinesAnchor: #i1000917
General Guidelines for Shoulders and Approaches
Shoulders are the portions of the roadway adjacent to the travelway that are used for the following purposes:
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- accommodation of stopped vehicles Anchor: #TRWSQQAI
- emergency use Anchor: #MDPVBOSS
- lateral support of base and surface courses.
Efforts should be made to maintain a smooth transition between the travelway and the shoulder. When a shoulder drop-off is objectionable, corrective action should be taken as soon as possible. When a shoulder drop-off condition presents a danger to the traveling public, corrective action should be taken as soon as possible.Anchor: #i1000948
The following guidelines are recommended for different types of shoulders:
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- Open base shoulders should be lightly bladed periodically to maintain a uniform slope sufficient to properly drain the roadway surface. Serious and habitual rutting in critical areas should be corrected by the addition of suitable material as soon as practical. Excessive material losses should be corrected by adding additional material as soon as practical. Anchor: #AAHIIDBJ
- Paved shoulders are subject to the same distresses and deterioration as similar roadway surfaces and should be maintained in the same manner. Anchor: #HMWSXYKM
- Sod shoulders should be lightly bladed as needed in order to prevent shoulder buildup and drop-off and to provide a uniform slope sufficient to properly drain the roadway surface. Serious and habitual rutting in critical areas should be corrected by the addition of suitable material as soon as practical.
Rules and regulations governing the construction and maintenance of access driveways are located in the “Access Management Manual.” General guidelines for driveways include the following:
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- Commercial driveways are to be constructed and maintained by the owner of the commercial establishment served by the driveway. Commercial driveways include any entrance to or exit from any commercial or business establishment and includes approaches or exits to or from schools, churches, cemeteries, and other public places or buildings of a similar character. Anchor: #WJXFYUXM
- Private driveways are to be constructed and maintained by the owner of the property served by the driveway. Private driveways include entrances to or exits from a residential dwelling, farm, or ranch for the exclusive use and benefit of the permittee. Anchor: #LXTYKARN
- Public driveways include all approaches to state highways from a publicly maintained street, road, or highway. The cost of materials, installation, construction, reconstruction, relocation, enlargement, and modification shall be the responsibility of the permittee, except as provided for in 43 Texas Administrative Code Section 11.54 subsection (c). The department shall maintain all portions of public driveways that lie within the state highway right of way and that connect to highways that are the maintenance responsibility of the department.